Saturday, December 4, 2021

Do You Know How Electric Bikes Work? (Read It!)

Do You Know How Electric Bikes Work?

Electric bike now becomes popular in use because of its convenience and simple design. Let take a look at following article to figure out how electric bike works!

It is obvious that electric bike is an environmentally friendly form of transportation with various good points, including saving fuels.

A model of electric bikeA model of electric bike

To perform advantages like that, electric bike needs a unique principle of operation. And this following process will give you a brief explanation about how electric bike works.

  • Once rider start to turn on the electric bike with the display, rider will know about battery status and prediction of the distance that the bike can travel with the current charge.
  • The display will show the speed according to rider’s setting.
  • When rider begins to cycle, the pedals experience the motions. Then, the display reads the setting speech and sends a signal to the batteries to supply a suitable amount of power for the complex of motors, turn the electric bike in operation.
  • When rider stop applying force on the pedals, the signal disappears and the motors system stops operating. It also performs the same when the brakes are pulled on, as the electric brakes show a signal to cut off the power to the motors.
  • This linking system constantly works while riders enjoys their easy movement on electric bike.

While it’s necessary to pump up and down your legs on the pedals to produces a tiny amount of electricity from available small generator placed on the rear wheel to lit the lamp in the dark, now you don’t need to do this on an electric bike no more.

Thanks to advanced structure, electric bike works smoothly without supplement of your force.

There are important parts that are indispensable to operate an electric bike including batteries, electric motors, sensor, frame and spokes, and brakes. Besides, there are also other components equipped in e-bike for the best assistance for the riders.


Batteries play the most important role in an electric bike. Instead of applying force on the pedals to move the bike, the batteries produce electricity and contain all the power that drives you along.

A model of e-bike batteriesA model of e-bike batteries

At first, you need to take consideration on ‘the range of battery’. This term is used to describe the distance you can travel by your electric bike every single charge. Advanced batteries nowadays can give you about 20 – 60 miles per charge.

Besides, The distance you travel before recharging the batteries depends on how much assistance from electric motors that you use during riding. The less the motors are used, the more miles you can get from the batteries.

Today, modern batteries with high efficiency and light weight are used widely to improve electric-bike quality with a reliable source of power that make this vehicle more attractive and easier to use.

Electric Motors

Without compact electric motors, the electric bike cannot work. Every e-bike includes three main motors placed in different positions with specific functions.

See more: How To Make An Electric Bike With A Starter Motor

Front hubRear hubMid-drive
Front hub motor is located into the centre of the front tire. From there, the electric motor spins the wheel to provide propulsion, which help the bike move forwardThis electric motor is placed in the back wheel or at the rear. It is more complex because there is an interaction among rear hub, gears and other components at the rear of the e-bike. Rear hub functions as a useful part which promotes traction, giving rider a safe grip on rough surfacesPosition of mid-drive motor is at the top end of the range, clinging to the frame. Its functions are taking the force applied on the pedals and sending power through the drive system. It is designed with strong balance, giving rider a more natural sensation than the hubs

Electric MotorsElectric Motors


The complex of electric motors equipped in the bike improves the smoothness of the e-bike, limits shocks on challenging terrains and gives riders comfortable sensation on their drive.


Model of sensorModel of sensor

It is essential to set one of the two sensors (speed sensor and torque sensor) in an e-bike. There are different function to each kind:

  • Speed sensor: perform quick engagement to the motor when riders start pedalling to give the ride assistance.
  • Torque sensor: play role in assisting to match rider’s speech when moving.

Frames and Spokes

Model of frame and spokes of an e-bikeModel of frame and spokes of an e-bike

Different from normal bicycles, the frame in e-bike has particular features. E-bike’s frame is usually made of lightweight materials, such as aluminum alloy, so that the overall weight of the bike becomes lighter and riders can travel further per charge.

About spokes, the e-bike spokes are improved to be much stronger than the normal spokes in traditional bikes. It is because the ordinary lightweight spokes could bend or buckle due to the strong force created from the electric motors while spinning the wheel.


Model of brakes for e-bikeModel of brakes for e-bike

E-brakes is an important component for drive system that an e-bike cannot be built without. E-brake has plays the main role in cutting power to the motor in case the internal wires are shorted by the moisture. And this thing is very important to keep the users safe.

It is more necessary to equip an e-brake if your e-bike is powerful. That’s because e-brake is the best solution for locking the rear wheel easily in case the throttle gets stuck in another wide open throttle.

Other Components

To make the fullest support for the riders, e-bike can be equipped with extra components such as crank motors, display,…

  • Crank motor: Crank motor function as an assistance for the pedals to rotate the wheels. It helps to transfer energy in a more efficient way by letting power go through it, then adding more power here. Thanks to crank motor, you will get a more natural sensation than feeling power coming up directly from the wheels.

Model of crank motor in e-bikeModel of crank motor in e-bike

  • Display: Show necessary information including battery status, speed level, distance, and other useful modes. Moreover, display also gives different advanced features such as GPS and fitness tracking.

Model of display in e-bikeModel of display in e-bike

Final Thoughts

In conclusion, to make your e-bike operate with the highest productivity and perform best functions, you must ensure that all the components have close interaction with each others.

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